Tag Archives: ghat

Part II (Cont’d) – Fire

18 Aug

It is said that for any Hindu the most auspicious place to die is at Varanasi. If the person dies in the Ganges river itself or water from the river is splashed on the person as he dies, then this results in the attainment of supreme salvation. The person escapes the perpetual cycle of reincarnation and is transported to Mt. Meru which is the center of the universe and is similar to the Western concept of heaven. I could see the smoke billowing and smearing into the hazy bend of the Ganges before me. Manikarnika was the last major ghat at Varansi and was located at the far end of the city from where I was. I began the long walk towards the smoke. This would not be the first time I had observed the ancient rite of the Hindu funeral pyre.

Cremations at Pashupatinath – Kathmandu, Nepal (2007)

I had seen my first cremation in 2007 in Pashupatinath, which is a large Nepalese Hindu temple dedicated to Shiva in Kathmandu. Pashupatinath has its own cremation ghats which have been constructed on the banks of the Bagmati river and cremations take place 24 hours a day. Observers can walk over a bridge to the other side of the river and can watch the cremations talking place from that vantage point. Some of these ghats have roofs and raised platforms and these were where the wealthy had their funeral pyres. Those of less means were cremated right on the concrete slab of open air ghats that were nearest the river bank. What do we know of funeral pyres in the West? Certainly, we have cremations, but those are done in the back room of a crematorium with such technological gadgetry and speed that you get an incineration. So, as with many aspects of the way we live life in the West, we can choose to have instant gratification in death. The Hindu cremation is almost artistic in its ritual and choreography. The fact it can be viewed out in the open by non-family and strangers gives it the added element of the public theatre. It may take up to 6 hours for the pyre to burn itself out in some cases. How to describe the first cremation I watched at Pashupatinath? The first thing I can say was that I had to accept the decision I made to watch. I felt I would be invading the privacy of the family who was conducting the ceremony and I did not want to just gawk. At the same time, it would be ridiculous to sit on the other side of the river and pretend that you were not there to observe the cremation. When the body appeared, it brought everything into focus real quick.

Anointment – Pashupatinath

My eyes locked onto the scene, and in fact, I think it would have been disrespectful if I hadn’t held my gaze. It would have been disrespectful if I had looked elsewhere while this most shared actuality of the human existence was taking place. The body was carried by 3 men who shuffled down the steps and laid the man down on the pyre that had been prepared close to the river bank. He was wrapped in deep orange-colored robes. His head, hands, and feet could be seen. Then, other individuals – who appeared to be family members of the man — applied ointment to the man’s face, hands and feet. This ointment was a kind of cow butter and then other offerings like camphor, mango leaves, tumeric powder, and juniper or sandalwood were placed on or near the man’s body. The actual wood used for the funeral pyre was corkwood I think. After the anointing was finished, another man ambled out of the temple doorway above the ghat and approached the body with a torch that had been lit from a flame inside the temple. There were dried fronds of some kind placed on top of and around the sides of the body, and then the man carrying the torch began to light these fronds one by one in a clockwise manner. These fronds produced a dense smoke and triggered the wood below to begin to burn. As the smoke rose and blew across the river, I caught a faint scent of what seemed to me to be like candle wax. I could detect nothing more. The family members chanted a few refrains as they walked around the body clockwise. Some of them turned and sat down on the stone benches above the pyre.  I then noticed that another pyre that had already been burning for some time before I had arrived was about finished. A man showed up with a broom and began to sweep the ashes and remnants of the corpse directly into the Bagmati river. After a few strokes, nothing remained of the existence of that person. He had been swept into the everlasting right before my eyes and the river had taken it from there. I watched the river flow away from that spot and could see far downriver without obstruction. There was a man who appeared to be standing in the river and brushing his teeth. A couple of semi-clothed kids were swimming and playing just a little further downriver from the man. “How the swift current of life continued – uninterrupted,” I thought as I got closer to Manikarnika. But, the river I was walking alongside now was the Ganges whose source was the Himalayas and here at Varanasi it was starving without the rains of the monsoon. There were only a few rowboats that were crossing between the sandbars and carrying people across from one side to the other.

Boats waiting for the Monsoon – Varanasi (2009)

Most boats were drydocked or stranded on the land waiting for the rains to come. But, as I neared Manikarnika there was suddenly a crush of boats and people were just sitting in the boats looking at the activities going on in the ghat. The buildings of Manikarnika Ghat were charred by thousands of years of smoke. They stood like blackened sentinels from another time and were strikingly absent of the color and light that characterized the other ghats. This part of the Ganges was like the River Styx. It was the underworld and like any underworld there were guardians. The guardians of Manikarnika I learned were called Doms — a caste of untouchables. I almost got run over by 3 of them when I was craning my neck to look at one Manikarnika’s buildings and unknowingly walked across the main throughway of the temple when the Doms blasted out carrying a body on two long bamboo rods. The Doms of Manikarnika Ghat earn their living by conducting the funeral pyres for those Hindus fortunate enough to make it to Varanasi. The Doms charge fees for burning bodies that scale from a base price to an “all the frills” package depending on what the family wants to do. Paradoxically, as untouchables, the Doms are the only Hindus expected to touch the corpses, and so they complete the ceremony by sweeping the ashes and throwing any remaining bones of the body into the Ganges. Unlike Pashupatinath, where I observed the cremations from across the river, I was right in the middle of the cremation ghats at Manikarnika. I was only a few meters away from where the pyre burned. I watched for about 30-minutes before I felt soot falling on my shoulders and face and then realized I was breathing in the ashes of human flesh. This didn’t unsettle me. I understood the shared mortality between myself and these ashes that were being carried up in smoke. I understood the meaning of what the Buddha had said to those who surrounded him as he succumbed to his own death that day in Kushinagar. Nothing is permanent – everything transitions into something else and you have to work out your salvation yourself. What I was observing (and inhaling) was one Hindu’s last step toward a salvation that he had journeyed to during his mortal days on earth. This person had lived, loved, been angry, sad, forgiven, grown, apologized, and died. Now, he was breaking free and ascending to Meru, or heaven, or nirvana. And I breathed it in. I became lost in this realization and watched the fire burn.

Periphery of Marnikarnika Ghat

When I finally snapped out of it, I noticed the sun was getting lower in the sky and I had to make my way back to another ghat where a ceremony was to be performed. This ceremony was a blessing to the Ganges that Hindus conducted at sunset of each day of the year. It was called the Ganga Aarti and it took place at Dashashwamedh Ghat.  When I arrived at this ghat, there were throngs of people already claiming spots on the steps and they crowded near 5 raised concrete platforms that faced the Ganges. There were lights in the shape of parasols above each of these platforms and bells hung from iron bars connected to these lights.  As the sun set, the ghat was packed and 5 priests — who looked very young — took their position on each of the platforms. A man who sat behind them with a couple of musicians began chanting and singing through a microphone. Then, each of the priests began performing the ritual of the blessing in unison. Each priest carried with him 5 elements: earth, water, fire, air, and space (in the form of ether) that were symbolized by a flower, a water spray with a handkerchief, a brass lamp, a peacock fan, and a yak-tail fan. As each element was introduced and offered to the Ganges, the priests waved the materials clockwise and given the dust that was still in the air  and the twilight conditions, each item created a kind of vapor trail that clearly hung in the air around the priest before dispersing.  Each element took on an ethereal form and I guess that was the idea of the blessing — to have the faithful experience a tangible divine connection with the Maa (Goddess) Ganges who begat and sustained life. The ceremony lasted for an hour and at the end the priests walked down from their platforms towards the Ganges. They each kneeled down and placed a circular candle with flowers (called a diya) in the river which was slowly carried off by the current. There was a congruence between what I had experienced at Marnikarnika Ghat and the Ganga Aarti blessing. Each day Hindus gave thanks to the Ganges through a spiritual and symbolic offering at Dashashwamedh, and then just a few hundred meters away, they sought salvation through the physical offering of their bodies at Marnikarnika. That was the supreme personification of balance. That is Varanasi.

Advertisements

Wheel

26 Jul

Although he could stand on his own and had decided he would share what he had learned and understood, the Buddha was not quite ready to leave the site of his awakening.  He spent 7 weeks lingering. During that time he meditated and thought through his teachings.  He circumambulated the tree — placing himself in different areas where he could face the seat from which it had all happened. During his fifth week, a Brahman — a member of high caste society — saw the Buddha sitting in contemplation. Something about the look of calm and peace upon the Buddha’s face struck the Brahman.  The Brahman stepped close to the Buddha and asked him, “What caste are you?”  The Buddha opened his eyes. This was the first person he had interacted with since that woman who mistook him for a forest spirit those many months ago. “I come from no caste and it matters not as to who I am,” the Buddha replied. The Brahman was stunned.  This was a land where one’s identity was defined by the caste within which one was born. So, your fate in this life was set in stone from the second you entered. If you were born a Brahman as he was, then the fates had smiled upon you because your life had the highest worth and you received entitlements due to such worth.  “Surely you jest! You cannot think that the Dalits or untouchables are of the same worth as the Brahmans?” “One does not become a Brahman by birth. It is only by one’s deeds that one is a Brahman.”  The Buddha saw the look of shock on the Brahman’s face and knew he had to sketch a more vivid picture of what he meant. “If one wishes to make a fire, then one will use any dry piece of wood to do so. So, just as fire can come from any type of wood, a noble or wise person can rise from any caste. Only through knowing the truth does one become wise and that does not happen at birth. For at birth, there are only attachments to be clung to that obscure the truth. But, when one frees himself from these attachments and realizes the truth behind why things are the way they are, then one becomes wise. Then one becomes what you call a Brahman. But, what I would call being Awakened.”  The Brahman wobbled in awe. He had never heard such words nor had such words ever been uttered.  The Buddha had just given his first teaching! Though neither he nor the Brahman would have ever planned on their meeting resulting in a sermon. It had just happened. The Brahman could only thank the Buddha for his words and then he shuffled off still pondering the message that had been shared with him. As the Buddha watched the Brahman walk away, he realized that he would have to present his teachings through a framework that would be transparent and easy to understand. He knew he could explain the first step towards arriving to the supreme understanding he had attained. This was the Middle Path and it more or less was a general guide to living day-to-day that people would understand. But once one had committed to this Middle Path, then one would have to proceed through acceptance of certain fundamental truths of man’s existence. The Buddha could boil these down to 4 truths although the last truth itself had various spokes of guidance that he would need to further breakdown for ease of transferring such knowledge. But, he would explain the 4 core truths of his teaching  to his 5 companions through use of imagery they could grasp. He set out to find them and the journey took the Buddha across the bends of the holy Ganges a few different times until he came to ancient city of Benares.  Benares was dusty, chaotic, and filled with ghats or platformed steps that led down to the banks of the river below. Each ghat had its own distinct purpose and personality based on what ceremony or practice it was connected to.  There were no parks or spaces of solitude in Benares, but he was told of a small park known for its pockets of deer that lay just a few miles to the north of the city – away from the river.  The Buddha headed to this deer park and as he entered, there he saw his 5 companions — all grossly emaciated with looks of anguish on their faces as they still practiced extreme self-denial in their desire to find their own answers.  His companions slowly started to recognize the Buddha when they noticed his shape walking towards them. They began to snicker amongst themselves.  There could be no way they would welcome him back within their ranks. Yet, as the Buddha got closer and closer, they began to sense something different about the prince they had previously known. There was an undeniable glow and aura of wisdom surrounding him. He walked without effort and within a few seconds he had glided before them. They instinctively sat around him and offered him the few grains of rice they had stashed away for themselves. The Buddha did not want to eat, he only asked if they were ready to learn what he had discovered.  Any doubt the companions had about the Buddha evaporated in that moment. They could see the profound change that had come over him and they wanted to accept his teaching.  With his companions gathered around him, the Buddha began. The wheel of truth had started its first rotation.

%d bloggers like this: