Tag Archives: Ayutthaya

Long Time No Monk Chat

22 Jun
Central altar in Wat

Central altar in Wat Phan Tao (1848) –  Chiang Mai, Thailand (2006)

I took an overnight train from Bangkok to Chiang Mai. Because I bought my ticket within an hour of the train’s departure from Bangkok, all the sleeper cabins in the train were occupied. I took a seat in the 2nd class cabin which was very nice, except that the seats had limited recline and this would be an 11-hour train ride with stops along the way. When the train pulled into the Chiang Mai train station at around 10am, my first task was to find a place to crash for the next 3 days. I had not reserved a room anywhere, but knew that Chiang Mai would have no shortage of hostels, guest-houses, and hotels available for roving chaps like myself. I stumbled along the city centre area until I found a decent-looking guest-house with a room available. I fell asleep immediately as I flopped on the bed. Chiang Mai sits at an altitude of about 310m (1,000+ ft) and is cradled by the serenity of green hills and mountains. So, the air has a coolness to it — free of the stifling heat and humid canopy of Bangkok.  Although it is the second most populated city in Thailand, it does not project the incessant push and pull crammed sprawl of a big city. It is like a pocket of tranquility — filled with evening mist, forested enclaves, and a laid back attitude. When I woke up in the early afternoon after my short snooze on that first day, I looked out of the window of my room and instantly tuned into Chiang Mai. I understood the vibe. I actually felt relieved to be out of Bangkok and was ready to just get on a bicycle and roll around with no agenda.

Wat Suan Dok

Wat Suan Dok

Chiang Mai was founded in 1296AD and was the capital of the Lanna Kingdom for nearly 500 years. During that period, it was the main rival to the Thai Kingdom of Ayutthaya to the south.  The bulk of the many Wats in Chiang Mai contain golden Chedis designed in the Lanna-style — like narrow golden bells.  The influence of the next door Burmese can also be found in many Chedis in the city which have square bases. Each Wat in Chiang Mai consists of 3 elements: 1) the “viharn” which is usually a spacious roofed area which serves as the assembly / meeting area for monks; 2) the Chedi or Stupa which typically enshrines some important historical or body relic; and 3) the Buddha statues or images within the main chamber room of the Wat. As I biked around the city, my eyes became fixed on a white dot nestled between some green hills in the distance. This was Wat Phrat That Doi Suthep or “Doi Suthep” as it was called. Legend has it that in the 14th century a monk from Sukhothai had a vision in which he was compelled to dig at a site somewhere in Thailand. He unearthed a shoulder bone fragment at that site and believed it to belong to the Buddha. He took the relic to the king of Sukhothai who attempted to verify the authenticity of the relic by conducting a ritual to showcase its miraculous properties. But, when the relic did not exhibit any kind of special or supernatural power, the Sukhothai king gave the relic back to the monk. However, the story of this relic had traveled north to Chiang Mai which at the time was ruled by King Nu Naone. King Naone was very interested in the monk’s story and summoned the monk before him.  When the relic was showed to the King, it split into two pieces. King Naone placed one of the pieces on the back of a white elephant which took off towards the mountains surrounding Chiang Mai. The elephant walked mid-way up one of the mountains, trumpeted 3 times, and then laid down and died.  The King took this as a sign that a temple was to be built on that site and the first Chedi was built there in 1383. Through the passing centuries, a large platform with multiple Chedis and a statue of the white elephant were constructed at Doi Suthep. I visited Doi Suthep on my second day in Chiang Mai and walked up a huge staircase framed with Nagas (Hindu serpent deities) which led up to the hill-site of Doi Suthep. The views of Chiang Mai from Doi Suthep were incredible.

Rod iron Buddha Image window from Inside the viharn at Wat Suan Dok

Wrought iron window of Buddha image from inside the viharn at Wat Suan Dok

The other piece of bone that came into being after the relic had split in front of the King was interred within one of the Chedis af Wat Suan Dok (Flower Garden Temple) which is one of Chiang Mai’s oldest surviving temples. It dates back to 1373 and the temple is also the site of Mahachulalongkorn Rajavidyalaya Buddhist University — an important Theravada Buddhist school where monks from all over Southeast Asia come to study. Wat Suan Dok has a program in conjunction with the university where monks meet foreigners interested in Buddhism. This program is called “Monk Chat” and I was hoping to make it to one of these sessions while I was in Chiang Mai. I headed west on my bike and because I wasn’t paying attention, I over-shot Wat Suan Dok. By the time I figured out that I had gone too far, I was in a very leafy area filled with tall trees. I decided to make a left turn onto one of the quiet side streets shooting away from the main road and to my delight I came to Wat U Mong. Wat U Mong is an idyllic forest monastery filled with meditation tunnels and stone Chedis. Wooden signs with sayings of the Buddha are tacked on hundreds of trees throughout the monastery grounds. I had arrived here completely by accident. I hopped off my bike and wandered.

Meditation tunnels - Wat U Mong

Meditation tunnels – Wat U Mong

I ducked into the meditation tunnels and sat on the cool tiled floor. I couldn’t believe how easy it was to focus my thoughts inward while inside the tunnel. I had not planned on trying to meditate — it just naturally happened. The tunnel was like a big neural pathway to facilitating meditation. A portal. The monks who had dug these caves really knew what they were doing!  I had one deeply meaningful and personal reflection which hit me like a lighting bolt while I was in the tunnel. I still remember it now — 8 years later as I type this. It is not something that I would share as part of this blog – but I do believe the realization I was able to attain in that tunnel at Wat U Mong was something that probably would not have come to me during the usual pace and activity of my life.  When I emerged out of the tunnel, I walked up to a clearing on a small mound and there before me was one of the most horrifying Buddha images that I had ever seen. This image was obsidian black — a blackness that accentuated the gauntness of the Buddha’s face, the jutted implosion of his ribcage, and the disintegration of his arms and legs.  I adjusted slowly to this Buddha which was strikingly incongruent to the usual brightly gilded and beautiful Buddha images I had seen in Thailand and throughout Asia.

Fasting Buddha - Wat U Mong

Fasting Buddha – Wat U Mong

This was the “Fasting Buddha” — a stark depiction of the Buddha when he hit a near dead-end in his quest for enlightenment. At that point in his life, he was following the ways of the strict ascetics of his time who believed that self-denial and deprivation were the proper spiritual paths toward attaining supreme knowledge [See post: “Wilderness” – http://wp.me/p2Bq4y-2n%5D. I began to understand why this image looked like some alien creature with little trace of any humanness — it was meant to serve as a reminder that even the Buddha had previously failed on his journey towards enlightenment and this failure took him to the brink of death.

Administrative Office / Monk Chat - Wat Suan Dok

Administrative Office / Monk Chat – Wat Suan Dok

As the afternoon was turning into night, I got back on my bike and double backed towards Wat Suan Dok. I had a funny feeling that the Monk Chat program would be closed because it was after 5pm. I pedaled as fast as I could. Within a few meters of my entrance to the temple grounds, I saw a modern-looking administrative building which I thought may be connected with the program. I was right. I entered the room and it appeared the place was closed. Sure enough, I saw a sign stating that the hours for Monk Chat were 9:30am to 5pm. It was now 5:35pm. My shoulders slumped and I turned away. As I was walking out, a voice called out to me. I looked back and there were 3 smiling monks before me. I went to greet them and they told me they were novice monks from Cambodia who were students at the university there.  They said that the official Monk Chat program for the day had finished, but wanted to know if I was interested in talking with them anyway since they wanted to practice their English. I excitedly agreed and sat down with them in a small room.  Since I was fresh off my experience in the meditation tunnels of Wat U Mong, I told the monks about it. I tried to explain how unbelievable it was to journey so nakedly inward in a flash of moment and come to an important realization that would otherwise elude one given the bombardment of distraction in everyday life.

Eson and friends

Eson (middle) and friends

One of the monks seemed very interested in the experience. His name was Eson and we shared some personal histories with one another for nearly an hour. When the monks had to finally get up and leave, Eson and I exchanged email addresses and for 3-years afterwards we continued to correspond with one another. In his last email to me, he told me that he had to leave the Sangha (the monkhood) in order to go back to Cambodia and help his family with their financial situation. He was going to become a taxi driver in Phnom Penh. I’m sad to say that we lost touch after that. He was probably around 20 to 22 years old when we met that day at Wat Suan Dok. He said something to me then which sounded funny and simple at the time, but has grown in its meaning to me over the years. He said people have “monkey mind” — meaning their thoughts, acts, behaviors, and wants dart like a monkey jumping from branch to branch of a tree. It is not in our nature to stand still and to focus in order to truly have intent behind any act of our mind, speech, or bodies. When one learns to quiet the mind, body, and speech in order to act with purpose, then that’s how spiritual growth takes root. But, that’s a skill one must learn and practice with tenacity over time. It is not easy. We are also all susceptible to outside forces that knock us off the branch — a branch we think we have under our control. I think back to the smile on Eson’s face when we said good-bye and then I envision him behind the wheel of his cab, navigating traffic as he adroitly drives a passenger to where they need to go. There’s a symmetry in that scene and my chat with him. I like that.

The Jewel of the Chao Phraya

17 Mar
View of Wat Phra Keo temple complex - Bangkok, Thailand (2006)

View of Wat Phra Keo temple complex – Bangkok, Thailand (2006)


It’s rare to be able to identify the spiritual heart and soul of a nation within 1 religious work of art.  Yet, that’s what the Emerald Buddha represents to Thailand. While this Buddha image is not actually made of emerald (likely chiseled from a jadeite, nephrite or jasper stone) and is small in height (the statue itself is about 48cm or less than 2ft tall ), it has played a significant role in the legitimacy of the current Chakri dynasty and as an augur for the prosperity of the Thai people. Its origins are shrouded in mystery. Legend holds that it was cast first in India about 500 years after the Buddha died under the direction of a prominent Brahmin turned Buddhist sage known as Nagasena who lived in Patna — not from Kushinagar where the Buddha had died. Due to invasions and battles in the area, the Emerald Buddha was transported further and further south and ultimately came to Sri Lanka.  It stayed there for centuries until one of the Burmese Kings of Bagan struck a deal with a Sinhalese King to have the Emerald Buddha shipped to Bagan which was at the time the center for Buddhist religious teaching and study.

Guardian Deity - outside Wat Phra Keow - Bangkok, Thailand (2006)

Guardian Demon – Wat Phra Keo

The Emerald Buddha never made it to Burma. Instead, a storm hit the ship carrying the statue out of Sri Lanka and the ship was blown off course. Somehow, the Emerald Buddha found its way to Cambodia where it was taken to Angkor. Then, when the Thai Kingdom of Ayutthaya sacked Angkor in 1431AD, one of the spoils looted from the great Khmer capital was the Emerald Buddha. However, other evidence has been discovered by Thai historians suggesting that the Emerald Buddha first appeared in Chiang Rai in the 1430s. At that time, Chiang Rai was part of the Lanna Kingdom which occupied a big chunk of what is today northern Thailand and in the 15th century was a rival to the Thai Kingdom of Ayutthaya in the south.  These historians point to records which speak of a large stupa in Chiang Rai toppling after being struck by lighting in 1434.  A monk who then combed through the debris of this stupa found a small stone figure of the Buddha. He placed this figure in the prayer hall of his monastery. Some time later, another monk happened to notice a small chip in the torso of this Buddha statue and upon further examination realized that the statue was actually coated by some kind of plaster or lacquer. He removed the coating and there beneath was the beautiful dark green crystal of the Emerald Buddha. So, the Angkor and Chiang Rai origination stories are problematic because how could the Emerald Buddha be in 2 places at the same time? Regardless of how the Emerald Buddha made its way to Thailand, the timeline as to what happened after the Emerald Buddha arrived/appeared is much better documented.

Ha Phreo - Vientiane, Laos (2013)

Ha Phreow – Vientiane, Laos (2013)

At some point around 1450AD, the Emerald Buddha was moved from Chiang Rai (or taken from Ayutthaya depending on which origination story one follows) to Chiang Mai where it stayed until 1551. Chiang Mai was the most important region of the Lanna Kingdom and it was governed by Chao Chaiyasetthathirat who was the son of the Lanna King, Phra Chao Phothisan. King Phothisan resided in Luang Prabang — a city farther north from Chiang Mai in what is today Laos. When King Photisan died, Chaiyasetthathirat had to leave Chiang Mai in order to make the arduous journey to attend his father’s funeral in Luang Prabang. Because he feared a coup or foreign invasion in Chiang Mai while he was gone, he decided to take the Emerald Buddha with him to Luang Prabang. Sure enough, within some days after he left, Burmese forces invaded north Thailand and pushed Chaiyasetthathirat’s armies across the Mekong River where they became cut off from Thailand. Chaiyasetthathirat had to stay in Luang Prabang which became his new capital and many spectacular Buddhist temples with exteriors and interiors painted with unique stencil-like design and patterns were built. However, Chaiyasetthathirat worried about being stuck in Luang Prabang and isolated from the rest of his kingdom, so he decided to move his capital south to Vientiane in the 1560s. Again, he took the Emerald Buddha with him. A gorgeous temple was built in Vientiane for the Emerald Buddha called Ha Phreow. The Emerald Buddha would reside in Ha Phreow for the next two hundred and fifteen years until 1778. Ha Phreow would ultimately be destroyed by Thai forces and rebuilt by the French in 1920s based on old descriptions and sketches of what the temple looked like in the 1560s. In 1778, a Thai general by the name of Chao Phra Chakri stormed across the Mekong River with his army and captured Vientiane. The Emerald Buddha was carried out of Ha Phreow and taken south to Thonburi which was where the Thai King, Taksin, resided. Taksin first placed the Emerald Buddha in a building near the site of Wat Arun. After Taksin’s death, Chao Phra Chakri ascended to the throne and crowned himself Rama I. He moved the site of the Thai capital across the Chao Phraya river to its present location in Bangkok. More importantly, Rama I constructed a temple for the specific purpose of housing the Emerald Buddha. In 1789, this temple which was called Wat Phra Keo (or the “Residence of the Holy Jewel Buddha”) was constructed within the Grand Palace complex where Rama I himself lived. The Emerald Buddha has sat atop a gold and diamond-studded pedestal inside Wat Phra Keo ever since.

Wat Phra Keow

Wat Phra Keo – exterior

Today, the Grand Palace is a big tourist draw and anyone can enter Wat Phra Keo in order to glimpse the Emerald Buddha — although no photos are allowed.  No monks live inside Wat Phra Keo either. At the start of each season (winter, monsoon, and summer) of the Thai year, the current Thai King (King Bhumibol or King Rama IX) performs a ritual that dates back to Rama I. The King will climb up a ladder positioned behind the Emerald Buddha and clean the statue with a cloth. Then, the King will change the attire of the Emerald Buddha based on which season is starting. The Emerald Buddha has 3 different golden garments that reflect each of the 3 seasons. For the winter season, the Emerald Buddha wears a golden frock that covers its entire torso.

Phra Si Ratana

Phra Si Ratana Chedi

There are many things to see in the Grand Palace complex.  The palace itself is a bold, ambitious building – a testament to King Rama I and his vision of a unified Thailand led by a new dynasty sanctioned by the presence of the Emerald Buddha. Within its inner compound where Wat Phra Keo is found, there are a number of stupas, statues, platforms, and other buildings. One interesting structure of note is the Phra Si Ratana Chedi which is a gold stupa built in the 19th century. It is thought to enshrine ashes of the Buddha that were transported to Thailand from Sri Lanka.  Another structure called Phra Mondop has ornate doors and columns. It is referred to as “the library” because it contains old texts of the Tripitaka – one of the earliest canons of the Buddha’s teachings translated from the Pali language. As one passes through this densely packed area, Wat Phra Keo suddenly appears. It is a standalone building and is the clear focal point of the complex. For most Thais, it is the most important and beautiful temple in Thailand. The outside of the building is meticulously bejeweled and glittering. Each side of the temple has its own “gate” of entry that is designated by a special statue or other unique element.

The Laughing Hermit - outside Wat Phra Keow

The Laughing Hermit

On the Western side of the temple, I was startled to see what looked like some jester or clown statue. This bronze statue was almost black in color and was unlike any other statue I had seen in any Buddhist temple grounds before. I was at the entry point of Wat Phra Keo called the “hermit gate” and this strange figure before me was the “laughing hermit” — a Thai saint believed to have healing powers.  I saw a few people stop by this image in order to make offerings in the form of flowers, fruit, and candles.  From here, I walked up a some steps and I entered Wat Phra Keo. Since it was early July, the King had just changed the Emerald Buddha’s garments to reflect the start of the start of the rainy season, so a gold sash covered the statue’s torso.

The ethereal glow of the Emerald Buddha

The ethereal glow of the Emerald Buddha

The Emerald Buddha is illuminated ever so slightly in an otherwise dark room. The effect is that the image appears to float.  Although the image looks like other seated images of the Buddha, many Thai believe the Emerald Buddha is  endowed with special powers such as the ability to perform miracles.  For the first century or so after it was housed in Wat Phra Keo, the Emerald Buddha was actually held aloft and walked by monks through the streets of Bangkok after the outbreaks of diseases, natural disasters, or other bad fortune had hit the people.  The effect of this magical looking green Buddha being carried through Bangkok neighborhoods cannot be overstated. People were cured of ailments and sickness, the waters of the Chao Phraya River quickly receded after large storms had brought floods and destroyed crops, and there was a reinforcement of the harmony between the Chakri King, the Sangha, and the citizenry. The most practical importance of the Emerald Buddha is its connection with the Chakri dynasty — which is nearly 250 years old and is the longest reign of any dynasty in Thailand’s history. This dynasty began with Chao Phra Chakri’s capture of the Emerald Buddha from Vientiane — although he did not become King Rama I until a year later. He built Wat Phra Keo and used the Emerald Buddha as a religio-political tool in order to sanction his rule and that of his heirs.  Even though King Rama IX is a “king only in title” today, he is highly esteemed by the people– almost on par as a religious leader. He is beseeched by his subjects to intervene from time to time in the many deadlocks, coups, and corruption that have plagued the Thai government through the years. He appears to have scaled back such interventions as of late, but it is highly doubtful that he will ever abdicate or give up his role as the primary caretaker of the Emerald Buddha. One of the most widely held beliefs in Thailand is that on the day the Emerald Buddha is taken out of Bangkok, the Chakri dynasty will end. Given the roving nature of the Emerald Buddha over the last millennia, I can’t help but think that there may not be a King Rama X.

At the Dawn of Happiness

27 Feb
Detail of temple exterior - Sukhothai, Thailand (2006)

Detail of temple exterior – Sukhothai, Thailand (2006)

East of Burma, lays the core of Buddhist Southeast Asia – Thailand, Laos, and Cambodia. South of Southeast Asia itself, frenetic socio-economic activity and religious contrast blurs by as Thailand cedes to Malaysia, then Singapore, and across the Strait of Malacca is Indonesia. I pick up then from Thailand. But, I must first lead with a basic overview of the Khmer Empire.  This was an empire that covered most of what is today Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, and south Vietnam. The beginnings of the Khmer Empire can be traced to 802AD with the founding of the empire’s capital in Angkor which was the most populated city of its time. The first Khmer Kings were adherents of Hinduism and so stories from the Hindu epic, the Ramayana, along with celestial beings like Apsaras were carved throughout the walls of the city. With each new Khmer King, new temples and structures were added to Angkor. In the early 12th century, the Khmer King Suryavarman II constructed the world’s largest temple complex known as Angkor Wat which today is one of the most visited sites in Southeast Asia. But, what most of the tourist package groups who fly into Siem Reap, Cambodia for day trips to the temple complex may not realize is that the lofty chambers of Angkor Wat were meant to capture a microcosm of the Hindu universe where the supreme-god Vishnu would be able to reside in quiet contemplation of all creation. It was not meant to be a Buddhist temple or shrine.

Wat Traphang Ngoen

Wat Traphang Ngoen

The Khmer people did not absorb Buddhism until a few centuries after Angkor Wat was built and the reason for their capitulation to Buddhism was in part due to the rise of the Thai people in the north and western frontiers of the Khmer Empire. The main Khmer outpost in Thailand up until the early 13th century was in Sukhothai which is about 450km (280 miles) north of Bangkok today.  A large group of Thai tribes and clans got together and drove out the Khmer forces from Sukhothai and established what was to be the first independent Thai kingdom in 1238AD.  One of the sons of the first king of Sukhothai became King Ramkhamhaeng and he ruled Sukhothai for over 40 years. His reign is referred to by Thai historians as a “golden age”. He created the forerunner of what is the modern Thai alphabet in 1283AD by adapting Khmer letters into a form that suited Thai speech, and extended Sukhothai north into Laos and south into the Malay peninsula. Religious art flourished under him in what is viewed now as classical Thai forms.

Wat Sa Si - Sukhothai

Wat Sa Si – Sukhothai

Wat Chana Songkhram

Wat Chana Songkhram

Prior to the advent of Buddhism, most Thais had a religious practice that consisted of a mix of animism and shamanism. Starting in the 11th century, Theravada Buddhism trickled into Thailand from Burma. Sukhothai’s first king, Indraditya (Ramkhamhaeng’s father), made it the state religion in an attempt to unify the Thai people. While it is acknowledged that the Buddha images and temples of Sukhothai were influenced by Burma’s Mon people, during Ramkhamhaeng’s rule the Thai did develop their own unique “chedi” (Thai word for stupa) design – a lotus bud spire. King Ramkhamhaeng also supported the growth of the Sangha — the monkhood in Sukhothai. He did this through inviting ordained monks from Sri Lanka (where Theravada Buddhism already had over a millenia’s worth of history) to Sukhothai so that they would conduct Buddhist teachings there and promote the monastic life. The first stupa constructed at Sukhothai was Wat Maha That (or the royal sanctuary). This stupa rose in a lotus-bud design and within it was enshrined a relic of the Buddha. It is the largest temple at Sukhothai. Most of the buildings in the Sukhothai were built with bricks and contained stucco exteriors. The interiors of many these buildings were painted with murals of the Buddha’s life and featured large bronze castings and stone carvings of the Buddha in various positions — seated,  standing, walking with elongated hands, and bearing a flame-like crown on his head.

Wat Maha That - Sukhothai

Wat Maha That – Sukhothai

Bicycling through the archaeological zone of Sukhothai, I started with Wat Maha That and continued to Wat Si Sawai (known for its Khmer-style tower), Wat Traphang Ngoen (contains faded, standing Buddhas in 4 niches), Wat Chana Songkram (has Sri Lankan-style dagoba design), Wat Phra Phai Luang (remnants of monastery), and Wat Saphan Tin (12.5m tall standing Buddha situated on 200m high hill that overlooks Sukhothai).

Wat Si Chum

Wat Si Chum

I found the most spectacular sight at Sukhothai to be Wat Si Chum —  a “mondop” containing a large sitting Buddha called “Phra Achana”.  The mondop itself is a 15m tall and 32m wide square structure and Phra Achana measures 11m in width from knee to knee. Devotees place gold foil on the right hand of this great Buddha who sits in the “vanquishing of Mara / the earth stands witness” pose (See post “Tempt” at http://wp.me/s2Bq4y-tempt). The words Phra Achana in Thai mean “one who is not frightened” and there are tunnels that run inside the walls of Wat Si Chum where these words are carved along with images and stories of the Buddha’s life. These tunnels are now closed to visitors. Wat Si Chum is a significant religious monument because its Thai builders consciously designed it to mark a break from the other “mandapas” which existed in India and elsewhere in the Khmer Empire at the time it was built.

File created with CoreGraphicsIn those other structures, the shrine or chamber room that was set aside for special ceremonial purposes was built within a larger temple or building. Wat Si Chum is not annexed to a larger religious structure, and instead, is an independent building that serves as its own stand-alone shrine. It allows for a very powerful, yet intimate experience within a uniform space that’s filled only with Phra Achana and the individual. When I entered, I felt boxed in as if in a confessional — as if I had come before Phra Achana to confess to my transgressions. One Thai legend even speaks of an invading Mon force who fled Sukhothai in fear when they peered inside Wat Si Chum and saw the disapproving, lowered eyes of Phra Achana staring back at them. Another interesting achievement of King Ramkhamhaeng was that he traveled to China’s Yunnan region on at least 2 separate occasions. He encouraged trade between his Thai people and the Chinese there, and through his efforts he sparked the Thai production of ceramic ware based on Chinese methods.

Phra Achana inside Wat Si Chum

Phra Achana inside Wat Si Chum

This savvy in being able to broker relations with larger countries is an important hallmark of Thai kings — one that paid off in a big way in the 19th and 20th century when Thailand ultimately emerged as the only nation in Southeast Asia not to fall under the imperial thumb of any of the Western powers that had occupied nearly everywhere else in the region. Through the wily maneuvering of the kings of the current Chakri dynasty, Thailand brokered its way through French, English, and American domination in Indochina.  Sukhothai would ultimately fall within 2 centuries after its founding and become a vassal state of its more powerful southern neighbor, Ayutthaya. The Thai Kingdom of Ayutthaya sacked Angkor in 1431AD, which signaled the end of the Khmer Empire.  The creeping jungle swallowed up Angkor and Sukhothai and both were lost for centuries.

Wat Saphan Hin

Wat Saphan Hin

Near where the royal palace once stood in the center of Sukhothai, a stone marker bearing an inscription was found. This inscription was translated and states in part:

“This realm of Sukhothai is good. In the water there are fish; in the field there is rice. The ruler does not levy a tax on the people who travel along the road together, leading their oxen on the way to trade and riding their horses on the way to sell. Whoever wants to trade in elephants, so trades. Whoever wants to trade in horses, so trades. Whoever wants to trade in silver and gold, so trades.”

An enlightened message from the 13th century.

Reflections in a Golden Face

26 Nov
Burmese girl at Mandalay  Flower Market

Burmese girl at Mandalay Flower Market

There’s a stanza of Rudyard Kipling’s poem, Mandalay, that reads: “If you’ve ‘eard the East a-callin’, you won’t never ‘eed naught else. / No! you won’t ‘eed nothin’ else/ But them spicy garlic smells, /An’ the sunshine an’ the palm-trees an’ the tinkly temple-bells; On the road to Mandalay…” Kipling wrote these lines in 1892 and in the full context of the poem, these words are being spoken by a soldier who has just come back from a 10-year stint in Burma and is describing his experience to the Kipling narrator who longs for a life in the East with a Burmese girl he left behind when he returned to London. Now, stuck in the cold drab confines of English city life, he reflects on his lost time in Mandalay and slips into the past as he listens to the soldier’s words.

View of Mandalay Hill from palace wall

View of Mandalay Hill from palace wall

Contrary to what may be a popular held belief, Mandalay is not on the ocean and does not have a bay. It is in the north part of Burma located far from the gulf and instead is nestled along the Irrawaddy River. It was the last capital of the Burmese kings and their beautiful teak Mandalay Palace compound burned to a crisp during World War II fighting in the city.  Today, Mandalay is Burma’s second largest city and is a dusty, gem-trading urban sprawl that serves as a crossroads for Burmese minorities from the northernmost corners of the country who come to Mandalay for supplies and work. In the city’s north boundary looms Mandalay Hill — a 760ft tall mound that is sprinkled with many monasteries, temples, and shrines connected by a series of covered stairways and paths which snake around the hill and up to its summit.

O Bein's Bridge - Amarapura

U Bein Bridge (1850AD) – Amarapura

Within 50km of Mandalay lies the former capital of Amarapura (home of the oldest teak bridge in the world – U Bein Bridge) and Sagaing which is a center for international Buddhist study and learning and has hills laden with many monasteries and temples — most famous of which are the Soon U Ponya Shin Pagoda and U Min Thonze Pagoda.

45 Buddha images of U Min Thonze - Sagaing

45 Buddha images of U Min Thonze – Sagaing

97ft high Soon U Ponya Shin Budda  (13th century) - Sagaing

97ft high Soon U Ponya Shin Buddha (13th century) – Sagaing

Mandalay contains one icon that beyond all else was the raison d’etre for my visit there: the Mahamuni Buddha. Along with the Schwedagon Pagoda and Golden Rock, the Mahamuni Pagoda which contains an image of the Buddha’s face cast in 554BC is the most venerated site of pilgrimage in Burma. Pictures or small replicas of the Mahamuni Buddha are found hanging in taxi cabs, stores, and restaurants all around Burma.

The Buddha pointing down from atop Mandalay Hill to the land below where he prophesied the founding of Mandalay. Ananda to his left.

The Buddha pointing down from atop Mandalay Hill to the land below where he prophesied the founding of Mandalay. Ananda to the left.

During the last half of the 6th century BC, the Buddha walked throughout India and beyond to spread his teachings. At one point, he went east and crossed what today is Bangladesh and dipped south to the Rakhine State area of modern Burma. There, he reached the city of Dhanyawadi which at that time was the capital of the Kingdom of Arakan. The Arakanese King  had already been exposed to Buddhism through those subjects and members of his court who had converted to the Buddha’s teachings, so he requested that the Buddha come to Dhanyawadi.

View of Sandamuni Paya from Mandalay Hill [each of the white stupas contains a marble slab with a page of the Tripitaka]

View of Sandamuni Paya from Mandalay Hill [each of the white stupas contains a marble slab with a page of the Tripitaka (earliest Buddhist scriptures)]

When the Buddha arrived, the King and the citizenry brought various gold and other precious objects as gifts for the Buddha who of course did not accept them. Instead, these objects were melted down and an image was cast of the Buddha’s  actual face. After the cast was created and the rest of the image’s body was put together, this image served to commemorate the Buddha’s visit to Dhanyawadi and passing generations of people were drawn to it in order to make offerings and stand witness to this likeness of the Buddha. The offerings took the form of diamonds, gold, rubies, emeralds, and sapphires which were affixed to the crown and chest of the Mahamuni Buddha. Then, gold leaf was applied to the Mahamuni Buddha continuously and this has resulted in several inches of thick gold layering on the image.  The image stayed in Dhanyawadi until the Arakan kingdom was sacked by the Mon Burmese who absconded with the Mahamuni Buddha and made it their own. The story goes that the Mahamuni Buddha was so large that it had to be cut into pieces for transport to Amarapura- which was then the capital city of Burma. It was then moved to Mandalay and has resided in its present compound after it was built in the 1780s by King Bodawpaya.

Matwalgyi Paya - Mingun

Mingun Pahtodawgyi – Mingun

King Bodawpaya was incredibly ambitious — not only did he consider himself a reincarnation of the Buddha, he also attempted to construct the largest stupa (and bell) in the world — on the other side of the Irrawaddy river just north of Mandalay. This was to be called the Mingun Pahtodawgyi — the Great Royal Stupa. It was never finished and today lies as huge brick stump that has since been split by an earthquake.

Exterior of Mahamuni Pagoda

Exterior of Mahamuni Pagoda

The Mahamuni Buddha compound is large with 4 points of entry and contains arcades or pavilions with covered walkways. There is a bazaar-like feel in these arcades where there are hundreds of shop stalls selling various religious ornaments, garlands, incense, and other offerings alongside books, home goods, food, and other supplies. On display in one of the temple courtyards is a set of 3 Khmer copper statues that were originally looted from the Khmer capital of Angkor in Cambodia by the Siamese kings of Ayutthaya in Thailand.  Ayutthaya was then sacked in the 16th century by the Mon king of the time, who took these pieces back to Burma. These statues today are rubbed by pilgrims as each contains some special merit.  If one follows any of these arcades they ultimately spill into the central area of the temple which then cascades in a series of archways into a small chamber. Inside this chamber is the Mahamuni Buddha which although in a seated position — appears at first glance to be standing over the continuous streams of monks, pilgrims, and people who are sitting below it. But, the Mahamuni is in fact seated in the mudra position where his right hand is pointed down — invoking the earth’s attestation to his attainment of Enlightenment and the vanquishing of Mara the tempter.

Cascading archways leading to the Mahamuni Buddha

Cascading archways leading to the Mahamuni Buddha

I approached the Mahamuni head-on and passed through a narrow arched corridor.  Each arch was divided into a base of red brick that gave way to a golden paint which rose to the ceiling. As I walked closer to the gleaming Mahamuni, the last 7 or so archways became more and more ornate with glyphic designs, flowers, and other intricate gilded patterns. There were people sitting on a carpeted area looking towards the light of the Mahamuni. Women were seated in the back of the carpeted area and men were seated closer to the Mahamuni. The area nearest to the Mahamuni was cordoned off and reserved only for monks. I slowed my gait as the great image began to reveal itself to me.

Mahamuni Buddha

Mahamuni Buddha

DSCN2840

Siddhartha Gautama?

It was set off in the darkened corridor by electric lights that framed the final archway that led to its chamber. This was truly an inner sanctum. The golden image was enhanced by lights from the ceiling of the chamber that bounced off it. A round face with closed oval eyes, broad flat nose, and pursed lips. This was the face — the face of Siddhartha Gautama before me. I sat down. He is 13ft high, but looks bigger. Something about the layering of old, medallions, necklaces, and other gems on his torso and crown make it look massive.  I studied the image. It smacked of humanness. I clearly saw features of a face that once did belong to someone. I had no doubt. This was not an idealized Buddha face as was omnipresent throughout Burma and elsewhere in the Buddhist world. Nor was this some kind of inanimate face like those found in other ancient statues of the Buddha. This image had a very different quality — a soul.  No wonder that at dawn of each day the face and teeth of the Mahamuni Buddha are cleaned in a carefully choreographed ritual by a senior monk.  As I sat cross-legged in the carpeted area reserved for men, I looked around at the people around me. Some had their eyes closed in silent prayer, yet others had their gazes fixed on the Mahamuni Buddha as if in a trance.

DSCN2836On the surface it could have appeared that we were worshipping a golden deity, but Buddhism is not about worship. It is about inward contemplation about the causes of suffering and discontent, understanding how such causes shackle us, and then breaking free from these shackles through an active pursuit towards ethical conduct, intention, speech, effort, and mindfulness. The image of the Buddha may be used as a point of focus for quieting one’s monkey mind, but he is not himself the focus. The Buddha never spoke to his disciples that he was to be worshipped. Nor did he teach about the need for worshipping any creator of the world. The focus of his teachings was on how to navigate a middle path toward the attainment of Enlightenment and after one had achieved that, then one would pass into a state of spiritual and physical bliss – freed of suffering – which could be realized in life or upon death.DSCN2838 As I sat before the Mahamuni, I thought about what the other people around me were concentrating on. Were they here asking for a blessing, searching for answers, or merely basking in the radiance of the illuminated being before them?

Monk at Sandamuni Paya

Monk at Sandamuni Paya

I think back to that moment now and re-imagine the smells, sights, and sounds swirling around that chamber.  The fragrant incense permeating through the archways and the mix of garlands and exotic spices. The sight of golden rays shooting out from the Mahamuni. The quiet murmur of the monks’ chanting and the laity shuffling on the carpet.  A trinity of senses. In his poem, Kipling also invoked a trinity as he cited to the garlic, sunlight, and tinkling bells. From his grey London quarters, he thought about that — about romance, about the East. Today, from within the cramped office of Western modernity, I understand Kipling’s nostalgic sentiment. I understand that longing.

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